Chapter 1: What is a Stroke?
Stroke Management: Advanced
Our continuing nursing education courses are accredited by the California Board of Registered Nurses and the Florida Board of Nursing, all states recognize our courses for accredited continuing education contact hours.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability. Few conditions can occur as rapidly and with as devastating consequences as stroke. Data from the American Stroke Association (ASA) indicate that over 700,000 people in the United States suffer a stroke each year. Immediate emergency treatment is critical to surviving a stroke with the least amount of damage to the brain and the ability to function. Every stroke or transient ischemic attack must be treated as a life-threatening emergency. Thus, it is important that all healthcare providers be educated on the early identification of stroke symptoms, emergency care options, and prevention of recurrent stroke.
This course, Advanced Stroke Management, will discuss the anatomy and physiology of a stroke. It will outline the cerebral artery anatomy and identify stroke symptoms as they relate to the various artery involvements. Radiological testing, laboratory values, medications, and nursing interventions will be addressed, as they pertain to the treatment of the acute stroke patient.
In 2003, The Joint Commission launched its Primary Stroke Center Certification Program. As of January, 2011, there are more than 800 certified primary stroke centers. The designation signifies that the hospitals meet requirements to provide emergency diagnostic and therapeutic services by a multidisciplinary team 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to patients with symptoms of acute stroke. Eight hours of annual stroke specific continuing education is REQUIRED for the staffs that comprise the CORE stroke team. Additionally, at least 80% of the Emergency Department staff is required to have knowledge of the stroke pathophysiology, presentation, assessment, diagnosis and treatment including thrombolytic therapy. Finally, Nurses on non-stroke units, where stroke patients are not routinely cared for, and ancillary staff should receive education related to recognition of stroke signs and symptoms and activation of the organization’s emergency response processes. This course would be excellent for all healthcare providers, and assist hospitals seeking both initial and renewal of primary stroke center certification.
Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:
- Identify signs and symptoms of a stroke, and appropriate emergency treatment.
- Differentiate the difference between a stroke and a transient ischemic attack (T.I.A.).
- Calculate the appropriate dose of t-PA for treatment of ischemic stroke.
- Identify the risks and benefits of t-PA administration.
- List the appropriate members of a (stroke) rehabilitation team.
- Discuss the N.I.H. stroke scale and its use in evaluation of stroke severity.
- Describe measures to decrease the risk of a recurrent stroke (“secondary prevention”).
- Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the brain and cerebral arteries.
- Define the penumbra in relation to acute stroke care.
- Describe the care for the acute stroke patient during a hospital stay.
- Describe emergency interventions for a patient diagnosed with an acute stroke.
- Signs and symptoms of a stroke
- Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic stroke
- Stroke versus Transient Ischemic Attack
- Time parameters for treatment
- Certified Stroke Centers
- Initial Emergency department care of stroke patient
- IV sites
- Blood pressure parameters
- Labwork and related diagnostics
- Aspirin on arrival
- Dysphagia screening
- t-PA for stroke patients
- Inclusion and exclusion criteria
- Infusion and monitoring
- Patient deterioration during infusion
- Expansion of 3 hour window
- The anatomy of the brain
- The cerebrum
- The cerebellum
- The brain stem
- Lobes of brain and their function (parietal, frontal, occipital, and temporal)
- The cerebral arteries
- Middle cerebral artery
- Anterior cerebral artery
- Posterior cerebral artery
- Vertebral-Basilar artery
- Initial care of the stroke patient ( 24-48 hours post stroke)
- Glucose levels
- Body temperature regulation
- Deep vein thrombosis
- Members of the interdisciplinary stroke team
- Secondary stroke prevention and patient education
- Stroke complications specific to area of infarct
- Balint syndrome
- Paramedian thalamic infarction
- Visual agnosia
- Locked in syndrome
- Migraine versus stroke
- Diagnostic testing for stroke patient care
- Brain scan (CT scan)
- Magnetic resonance tomography (MRI)
- Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TDU)
- Chest X-ray
- Electrocardiogram (EKG)
- Merci clot disruption
- Children and strokes
- Recommended websites for additional stroke information